You will find below some key concepts of climate:


A change in the state of the climate that can be identified (e.g., by using statistical tests) by changes in the mean and/or the variability of its properties, and that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer.Climate change may be due to natural internal processes or external forcings such as modulations of the solar cycles, volcanic eruptions, and persistent anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere or in land use1.Note that the Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), in its Article 1, defines climate change as: “a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods.”


The process of adjustment to actual or expected climate and its effects. In human systems, adaptation seeks to moderate or avoid harm or exploit beneficial opportunities. In some natural systems, human intervention may facilitate adjustment to expected climate and its effects.1Adaptation means anticipating the effects of climate change and to take the necessary measures to prevent or minimize the damage they can cause or exploit opportunities. The ability of administrators, at local and international level, to insert now the adaptation as part of its strategies can save on the costs of the damage associated with climate change in the future.Adaptation should not be performed in isolation from existing policies (e.g. legislation, funding systems), management structures (e.g. networks) and processes (e.g. in decision making). Thus, to allow synergies, instruments in place with relevance for adaptation should be reviewed and modified to cope with current and future impacts of climate, and including via better considerations for disaster risk management practices. Integrating adaptation through reviewing and modifying existing instruments or – if needed – establish new ones shall not be restricted to the environmental sector or to the public authority; it also refers to economic sectors and private organisations. 3


Mitigation of climate change: a human intervention to reduce the sources or enhance the sinks of greenhouse gases.Mitigation of disaster risk and disaster: the lessening of the potential adverse impacts of physical hazards (including those that are human-induced) through actions that reduce hazard, exposure, and vulnerability.1


The capacity of social, economic, and environmental systems to cope with a hazardous event or trend or disturbance, responding or reorganizing in ways that maintain their essential function, identity, and structure, while also maintaining the capacity for adaptation, learning, and transformation.1


The propensity or predisposition to be adversely affected. Vulnerability encompasses a variety of concepts and elements including sensitivity or susceptibility to harm and lack of capacity to cope and adapt. 1


In order for climate change adaptation and mitigation to be sustainable and applicable on a wide scale, it must be incorporated, integrated or “mainstreamed” into the policy apparatus of governments.In the climate change context, mainstreaming refers to the incorporation of climate change considerations into established or on-going development programs, policies or management strategies, rather than developing adaptation and mitigation initiatives separately. 2


  1. ‘Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability’,Annex II WGII, 2014, IPCC
  2. How to Mainstream Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation into Agriculture Policies, 2009, by Bockel, L., FAO
  3. European Agency for Environment, Climate-Adapt Platform,



IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability



Adaptation to climate change (ENG)
link (PDF)

The EU Strategy on adaptation to climate change (ENG)
link (PDF)

What is the Climate-adapt Platform
link (PDF)

The European Climate Change Adaptation Platform: Climate-ADAPT

Adaptation in Europe – Addressing risks and opportunities from climate change in the context of socio-economic developments (ENG)

Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016



Ministero dell’Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio e del Mare

Strategia Nazionale di Adattamento ai Cambiamenti climatici (SNAC)
link (PDF)

Documenti a supporto della Strategia Nazionale di Adattamento ai Cambiamenti climatici
– Rapporto sullo stato delle conoscenze scientifiche su impatti, vulnerabilità ed adattamento ai cambiamenti climatici in Italia”;
– “Analisi della normativa comunitaria e nazionale rilevante per gli impatti, la vulnerabilità e l’ adattamento ai cambiamenti climatici”;
– “Elementi per una Strategia Nazionale di Adattamento ai Cambiamenti Climatici” (PDF).



Gli indicatori del Clima in Italia nel 2015 – IX Edizione
link (PDF)

De Siato et al, Stato dell’Ambiente 58/2015 ISPRA, ‘Il clima futuro in Italia – Analisi delle proiezioni dei modelli regionali’
link (PDF)



Linee Guida per un Piano di Adattamento ai Cambiamenti climatici in Regione Lombardia

Strategia Regionale di adattamento ai Cambiamenti climatici della regione Lombardia (sintesi)

Documento di Azione Regionale per l’adattamento al cambiamento climatico in Lombardia



Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
European Commission Directorate-General for Climate Action
European Commission Joint Research Centre
European Topic Centre on Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation
Copernicus climate change service
European Centre of Disease Prevention and Control
World health organization Europe
UN Regional office for disaster risk reduction